Better Knowledge-Sharing: Fill The Dry Knowledge Well With These Practices

The post below was written by Sebastian Francis in 2010 for
At that time Sebastian worked for SAIC.

It’s an excellent article that describes describes some major concerns with knowledge management (including the capturing of tacit knowledge) along with making that knowledge retrievable and useful.
I’m grateful that Sebastian has given me permission to reproduce it here.


Better Knowledge-Sharing: Fill The Dry Knowledge Well With These Practices

a Guest Post by Sebastian Francis

Here are a variety of quick and easy ways to share important business information each generation needs to know.

Today, a popular need of organizational leaders is how to quickly identify, capture and reuse information from employees who are retiring, or about to do so, for these people have industry expertise and can make it quickly available to those who need it.

The ability to quickly access the right information can improve competitive position, promote innovation, reduce rework and errors, and increase the speed to identify new opportunities.

Unfortunately, searching for information (such as proven practices, lessons from prior unsuccessful attempts, tips and techniques, documented procedures and, most important, experience and intuitive expertise locked in the heads of individuals) can take far too much time.

As the crew shift change continues—Baby Boomers retire in mass and few Generation X and Y talent enter the oil and gas industry—leaders have an opportunity to manage this shift by leveraging the latest information-sharing technologies and methods. To meet business strategy, many leaders crave the ability to “google like Google.” They desire to create a deep reservoir of information that replenishes itself and deploy methods and tools that will enable each generation to find the right information within a few clicks.

Too often, organizations rely on only one method, such as launching communities of practice, conducting after-action reviews, and promoting the use of best practices. Or, they use a limited number of technologies such as social networking tools, content repositories and search engines, and use the same solution across the board. This tends to produce dry knowledge wells.

A savvy strategy begins with understanding the needs of the internal talent group: Who has the information and who needs it? Next is meeting unique requirements by implementing several methods and technologies to create custom solutions. Characteristics of the solution should emulate popular knowledge-sharing practices that occur outside the organization.

Understanding generational issues

“What we’ve got here is a failure to communicate.”
–Strother Martin, Cool Hand Luke, 1967 film starring Paul Newman

Communication problems are as old as human history. Bridging gaps is a continual challenge, and industry leaders need to know how to capitalize on overcoming those gaps.

Within the oil and gas industry (as well as in other industries), there are four generations of talent: Traditionalists (birth years 1925-1945), Baby Boomers (1946-1965), Generation X (1966-1980) and Generation Y (1981-2000). Since the 1990s, professional journals have alerted oil and gas leaders that the Baby Boomers, now the largest percentage of the workforce, are exiting the workforce at an alarming rate. The potential consequences include: 
Increased competition for talent. Due to the decrease in skilled talent following the retirement of the Traditionalists and Baby Boomers, competition for workers with required professional degrees and experience will increase. 
Shifting geography. Technology enables talent to work from anywhere and teleworking is becoming more commonplace; therefore, organizations will be able to source talent globally. This shift will affect organizational communication, strategy and business processes.
Shifting generation. The corporate leaders of tomorrow will most likely be talent from Generations X and Y. Currently, organizations are balancing the activities of retiring two groups and preparing the organization for two others, while not neglecting any.
Aging workforce. A majority of Baby Boomers are predicted to exit the workforce by 2015 and are followed by a much smaller group of talent, Generation X. In addition, the next generations of talent have different learning styles, communication preferences and work/life balance requirements than their predecessors. To recruit, retain and develop the next generation of talent, organizations must recognize and adapt to these styles.
Lost information and tacit knowledge. As Traditionalists and Baby Boomers exit organizations, some for the last time, so will their communal know-how—their tacit knowledge—especially if it has not been adequately identified, captured, codified and stored in corporate knowledge repositories.
Preparing and training talent. The fact that Traditionalists and Baby Boomers are retiring does not mean that they will not re-enter the workforce in some capacity, such as starting a new career, or working as a consultant or part-time employee. In some cases, organizations will be able to leverage veteran expertise in this way. As a result, organizations will need to update the skills of these workers, or train them along with other new hires. Thus, learning/training departments may simultaneously have to train several generations, each having distinctly different learning styles. This can perplex learning organizations that do not understand the needs of each generation.

Bridging generational gaps to improve knowledge management

“When you’re 17 years old, green and inexperienced, you’re grateful for any guidance and direction you can get.”
–Christina Aguilera, pop singer

Leaders who recognize and respond to generational communication and learning commonalities and differences, can bridge gaps and prepare for the future.

Different generations favor different learning styles. Traditionalists and Baby Boomers usually prefer face-to-face, classroom and instructor-led training activities. In contrast, Generations X and Y may resist formal training sessions and prefer to connect to people informally and quickly search all information sources. Technology tools, such as handheld devices and social-networking sites, facilitate their fast connections to information.

Traditionalists and Baby Boomers tend to communicate using formal and personal methods, such as writing e-mails, meeting face to face and holding conference calls. In contrast, Generations X and Y usually like just the right amount of information, when and where they need it, such as sending abbreviated text and instant messages, and meeting via online chat sessions.

When information exchange is effective, employees seeking information receive what they need—a knowledge gem. Unfortunately, during communication, valuable information is often lost because the organization does not have an easy-to-use method of identifying and systematically collecting and depositing gained knowledge into a repository.

Capturing critical knowledge

“Any customer can have a car painted any color he wants, so long as it is black.”
–Henry Ford

Because the talent of today and tomorrow is multi-generational, a one-size-fits-all approach to information capture, collaboration and reuse does not work. What works are multiple approaches that consider each member of the audience.

Now that the typical characteristics of each generation group is understood, the next step is to understand the two phases of information flow: capturing it and accessing it for re-use. Let’s explore two key steps to capturing it.

— Step One: Understand and identify knowledge that fuels the organization.
What information, knowledge and expertise is valuable to the organization? Some businesses are uncertain and attempt to capture all information regardless of value. A better practice is to identify critical business processes and their associated performance targets across the organization’s value chain. In other words, identify the most important business activities that yield success, are vital to avoid failure, and identify where information gaps exist.
Analyzing key processes, creating knowledge maps and interviewing stakeholders will lead to key process identification. The output will assist leaders in understanding where the information is located, who has it and the prerequisites for information capture.

— Step Two: Capture what’s important.
Information and know-how are scattered throughout an organization in e-mails, individual and networked hard drives, binders containing operating procedures and training manuals, SharePoint or other Internet sites, conversations around water coolers, and within people’s heads.

Knowledgeable organizations use a variety of capture activities such as on-the-job team learning processes before, during and after major activities and are supplemented, when relevant, through a series of individual interviews.

“Learning before doing” is supported by a peer-assist process, which targets a specific challenge, imports knowledge from people outside the team, identifies possible approaches to address obstacles and new ideas, and promotes sharing of information and knowledge with talent through a facilitated meeting.

A U.S. Army technique called After Action Reviews involves talent in “learning while doing” by answering four questions immediately after completing each key activity: What was supposed to happen? What actually happened? Why is there a difference? What can we learn from it?

At the end of a given project or accomplishment, a process called a Retrospect encourages team members to look back at the project to discover what went well and why, with a view to helping a different team repeat their success and avoid any pitfalls.

A critical component of capture technique requires an effective method to record information that is comfortable for the information providers and appeals to the information seeker. For example, a Baby Boomer’s preferred sharing method could be a written report. In contrast, a Gen Y would have no interest in such and would ignore it.

This issue raises the importance of using a variety of communication methods as well as an opportunity to emulate information and knowledge-sharing practices that occur outside the organization.

Social-networking sites such as Facebook, Wiki sites such as Wikipedia, and video-sharing sites, such as YouTube, are popular tools for capturing information, connecting with people, sharing ideas, searching for information and viewing content. Such sites are popular, free and used by each generation. Instead of inventing something new, organizations can transfer popular features from public sites into the design and functionality of corporate tools. 

For example, attaching a webcam to a laptop or using a smartphone instantly equips anyone with just-in-time ability to capture information, especially dialogue and images that are challenging to document. A handheld production studio allows for ad hoc or planned capture of interviews with experts, after-action reviews, safety procedures, an equipment repair procedure, etc.

Uploading multimedia files (sound bites and video clips) to a knowledge repository creates a powerful capture and sharing opportunity. The “YouTube” approach makes it possible for any employee to post a video to a corporate site so that any team member can watch it instantly. “Nu-tube” is the name of a concept that a nuclear energy company gives its effort.

Launching pop technology is “hip” when end-users are engaged, needs are understood and the solution meets their requirements.

Make Information Accessible Quickly and Easily

“I try to learn from the past, but I plan for the future by focusing exclusively on the present. That’s where the fun is.” 
–Donald Trump

With a plan now for perpetually capturing valuable information, people must be enable to access and use it. Two steps help to achieve success here. The first is to leverage technology to visually present information. The second is to involve end-users in the design of the sharing process. The following case study describes these two steps in action.

Recently, a U.S. pipeline service company realized that critical information trickled throughout its business unit. The increasing inability of talent to readily tap information sources sharply diminished the value of stored resources. The service company encountered several challenges to make information available.

The overwhelming amount of information to capture, organize, store and manage caused employees to spend days (then) versus minutes (now) searching data.

A document repository contained unmanaged versions and uncontrolled copies of files scattered in network file shares, laptops, intranet sites, CDs, flash drives and filing cabinets.

Other challenges were increasing regulatory constraints, litigation and business-continuity issues, and the rising need to capture “know how” from retiring staff.

Considering generational changes as an opportunity to plan for the future and social-networking tools as an opportunity to innovate, leaders acted. The result is “e-discovery,” a solution that increases the speed to find reporting information from across disparate business units, regulatory-compliance improvements and business-performance enhancements.

Solution highlights include preserving content on an enterprise level versus only at an individual level, implementing a self-service information portal, facilitating contextual and “smart” search, and reducing administrative costs of managing paper records.

The method of designing this solution contributed to its success. The e-discovery design team:
— Identified the valuable information needed to comply with legal requirements,
— Understood learning, technology and communication preferences of each generation,
— Devised methods to allow users to share and access information in multiple formats and
–Designed a tool that emulates features of popular social-networking sites (easy, visual presentation of information, collaboration, smart search and dashboards).

The e-discovery impact on the pipeline business segment includes preparing litigation-status reports in one step versus multiple steps; retrieving archived documents in minutes versus days; eliminating risks associated by damage to paper-based files; reducing employee frustration of not finding who or what they need; and serving as a solution model for re-use within the enterprise.

And most importantly this method helped all generations of talent quickly find the right information when they needed it, so that they can perform their job.

“Diamonds are forever.”
–De Beers ad

Information can be a valuable organizational asset when people can quickly recall where it is stored.

Fortunately, organizations have an abundance of internal information sources: documents, expertise, lessons learned, best practices and the like. Unfortunately, waves of experts are leaving or retiring, usually without depositing their rich knowledge or revealing the location of information “gems” critical to performing business processes.

Leaders can respond by providing a variety of communication and learning methods, leveraging popular social-networking technologies, and embracing the uniqueness of each generation. The impact for the organization can be a rich field of valuable information that continuously replenishes itself.

Note – this article can also be downloaded here.

“The New Normal” – my initial thoughts

I have been given a copy of Peter Hinssen’s “The New Normal“.

This book is about the

“advancement in technology” that “is creating a new ‘normal’ where relationships with consumers are increasingly in a digital form.”

Hinssen claims that we are “half way”, and that amazing things are going to be happening.

I’ve only just started reading the book, but here are my thoughts so far (as reviewed on  Goodreads) …


The New Normal: explore the limits of the digital worldThe New Normal: explore the limits of the digital world by Peter Hinssen

28 February 2012

Just started reading this book…but so far I am unimpressed.

Hinssen is telling us nothing new. Yes, technology has made a big jump. Yes, there are young people today who have never had to use an “analog” anything. Yes, for them digital is normal.

And – another thing that irks me is the concept that we are “half way”. How do we know that we are half way? Half way to what? Saying that implies that there is a defined endpoint. And then what?

As mentioned – I’ve only started reading this book (up to page 14). The things that I mention above are enough to make me want to keep reading. I want to see if Hinnsen moves away from this “wow – all this new technology” stance and offers something that isn’t self-evident. I also want to see whether he expands on this “half way” idea.

I will add to my comments once I have finished the book.


Here is a video that gives a “teaser” of his book…
[vodpod id=Video.16153305&w=425&h=350&fv=]

Related Links

  • “The New Normal” (on Peter Hinssen’s site)
  • Synopsis (by Peter Hinssen)
  • “The New Normal” (on
  • My review of the book (on
  • My profile on

FirstDoc & D2 – getting funky together

In an earlier post I discussed how EMC’s are now licencing D2 technology from C6, and that this meant that CSC are having to change their user interface strategy.

Well…on Tuesday, 6th of March, there is a webinar that will reveal what has been going on “behind the scenes”.

Some of my favourite CSC people will be discussing CSC’s “new, improved” customer interface strategy as “FirstDoc embraces D2” (their words, not mine).

I’ve been following this with interest for awhile, and I’ve registered for the webinar.

I’ll let you know all about it after the 6th.

Related articles

CIP Land

What follows is one of my posts that was recently published on AIIM’s site as an “Expert Blogger”. (The original can be read here)


The CIP Land

I’ve been working my way through the excellent CIP exam preparatory videos on the AIIM site. (These were prepared by Steve Weissman, and the Holly Group, and are very impressive.)

As I went from one “Knowledge Domain” to another I started realizing what it is that I like about the CIP. It’s that it creates a boundary.

What do I mean by this?

Well – think of your “Information Professional” as someone living in a village. A village called “Content Management”. They do their job, and do it well. They’re not aware of the fact that beyond their own village lies a whole world. Then the person travels. Maybe they have to visit another area for their work, or they see people from other areas visiting, and decide to go exploring. In any case, they get to see new sights, or learn new things. The world, for them, however, is still uncharted.

I have lived in this land, and I also only knew of only a few areas. Gradually, however I have travelled and seen new things.

At one point I started actively seeking out other residents. We all seemed to talk a common language, but each person had their own “regional” vernacular, or way of saying things. Each had their own experience and knowledge based on the areas where they were living. We learnt from each other.

The land we lived on was still uncharted. It had no boundary, or borders. No-one knew where it started or stopped, or what places made up the land.

The CIP however, defines what knowledge an Information Professional should have. It creates a map of that land. And it appears that it is an island in a sea of other similar islands. All interacting together.

Looking at the map, I have come to realize that this collection of experiences and knowledge that I have from my many trips through different areas all fits into a big picture.

And that is what I like about the CIP. I now can look at it, and get an idea of the various places that make up this world.

I know which areas I need to revisit, or spend more time in, to give myself a more rounded set of knowledge and skills to be able to call myself an Information Professional.

  • Becoming a Certified Information Professional (
  • The “Better” Information Professional (

Power of Social & an example of “Wisdom of the Crowds”

In a previous post, I discussed how you don’t always get a correct answer to a question you ask to a crowd.

One of the Spark talks given at Lotusphere 2012 was by Mitch Cohen. It was titled “Get Cancer – Get Social”. His wife had been diagnosed with breast cancer.

Mitch’s talk was a good, & inspiring, one. He talked about the part the internet, and social media played, and broke it down into three areas:

  • Information
  • Misinformation, and
  • Support



“Believe it or not, someone (can) be wrong on the internet”

The first thing that Mitch did when his wife was diagnosed was to tell her not to look for answers on the internet. In his talk, he tells us that no two diagnosis’ are the same, and that everyone reacts differently. There are a lot of people out there trying to be helpful, and give advice, but it was, really, misinformation. The best thing to do, said Mitch, is ask the questions to the experts – the doctors and oncologists.


“There’s a lot of support you can get”

Mitch talked about Facebook. “You can be sitting at an infusion centre, letting this poison run into you boy, and you could be thinking about that, or you could be looking at the 100 of comments coming in wishing you support.”


Mitch’s wife started blogging about what she was going through. She wrote about how she was feeling, how she was handling it, and what she thought about what was going on. Not only did it made it easier for her to tell her friends all about it, it made it really made it easier for Mitch to share it with his friends.

Living Vicariously

Mitch pointed out that going through chemo means you end up being more susceptible to infection  Which means that you can’t be around other people. Being able to see what the vacation photos of others on Facebook, and reading their stories really made a difference to his wife.

Thousands of Miles Away

“I wish we were closer, I wish there was something we could do”

Mitch told of the great support they got from their local friends was, but what he found incredibly powerful was the support he got from people thousands of miles away. How people he had never met in person came up to him (at the conference) and were genuinely concerned and interested with what had been going on.

The Spark Talks were, and are, organised by The Nerd Girls. You can see, below, a list of other excellent Spark talks that were given at Lotusphere2012.

  • Spark Ideas Lotusphere 2012 – The Videos (
  • Wisdom of the Crowds – part 1 : When the wisdom of the many helps the few or the one (
  • Relationships in social media (
  • From The Wisdom Of Crowds, To The Wisdom Of Friends (

Information Architect (also known as “The Bridge Builder”)

Peter Morville described an Information Architect as a “Bridge Builder” in his Information architecture and findability column from August 2008.

He expands on this with the following:

An information architect builds bridges between:

  • Users and Content. We design search and navigation systems that connect users with the content and services they need.
  • Strategy and Tactics. We translate abstract visions into well-grounded, actionable blueprints for design and implementation.
  • Units and Disciplines. We facilitate cross-functional collaboration using boundary objects (e.g., wireframes) to start conversations.
  • Platforms and Channels. We sketch maps for new services and experiences that span multiple platforms, channels, and media.
  • Research and Practice. We use the scientific method, heuristics, analytics, user research, and ethnography to inform our designs.

You can read the full post here


  • The Future of Information Architecture
  • Some Generalizing about Specializing

Test Driving the Bottlenose

It’s amazing how you can stumble upon things. In reviewing the results of a Google Alert for “Hootsuite”, I came across a reference to a new Twitter client called “Bottlenose“.

Bottlenose looks like a pretty powerful tool. You can read about it in this post on, and check out, on the Bottlenose site, the “tour” of its features.

I have just signed up, and I’ve got to admit, it looks impressive. I understand that the beast is still in BETA, and that there are a few limitations, but I am going to give it a good try out over the next couple of weeks.

I’ll let you know how things go…

  • Bottlenose Begins to Unstealth
  • Spivack’s Built To Match Scale of Exploding Message Stream
  • Crimson Hexagon Partners with HootSuite to Provide Social Insight and Engagement for Enterprises
  • Struggling to Keep Up with Social? Try These Tools
  • Bottlenose: Fighting Information Overload With a Smarter Social Media Dashboard
  • Bottlenose 2.0 Dives Into The Visual Social Web
  • Bottlenose 2.0 Is a 6th Sense for the Social Web
  • Bottlenose 2.0: Taming The “Share-pocalypse” With A Smarter Social Media Dashboard
  • Bottlenose is a social media dashboard that makes sense of the stream (invites)
  • Can Bottlenose help prevent the social sharepocalypse?

eDiscovery Process

In earlier posts (here, and here) , I described AIIM’s Certified Information Professional certification.

Well I’ve been working my way through the training material, and got to the section on eDiscovery . Steve Weissman does a great job of describing the Electronic Discovery Reference Model (EDRM).

Electronic Discovery Reference Model.




The Identify Solution performs a full index of all data in place prior to collection, creating an auditable “data topology map” of active ESI, files, and email located on network servers, email servers, content management systems, storage systems, and PCs. Data topology maps are highly customizable to meet specific scan criteria, and they provide an automated and recurring way to identify ESI across unstructured sources, tag it, and apply business rules for eDiscovery.


The eDI Preservation Solution process allows documents that meet the preservation criteria to be searched in place, and then moved without the need for specialized collection tools. This process also authenticates collection and preservation by maintaining an audit log of the collection and by creating a hash value before and after collection. In addition, access control lists (ACLs) and security identifiers (SIDs) are preserved, proving file ownership as tracked by the file system.


In addition to traditional collection technology and methods, eDI has technology that provides on a solution that crawls and collects data on network servers, storage systems and personal computers, all without disrupting end users. No agent software has to be installed on PCs, and the solution is entirely transparent to users.

Culling and Processing

The collected documents, or the corpus, will need to be culled, based on the scope of the litigation and the information needing to be reviewed. Date range, document type, duplicate information, and keywords are a few of the methods used to reduce the corpus. At this stage the goal is to reduce the corpus down to a manageable size before human effort is expended.

The next step is to prepare the documents for a database review. Different tools have varying capabilities. Nor are cases identical, or the information required for them. As a result, processing will vary. In some cases, processing may occur all at one time and everything will be converted into its final production form of TIFF images. In other cases, the corpus will only go through light processing to make the native files suitable for review.


eDI provides a variety of cutting edge technologies that enable data analysis at virtually every stage of the EDRM model. These processes of evaluating a collection enable a rapid understanding of data that can enable the determination relevant summary information, such as key topics of the case, important people, specific vocabulary and jargon, and important individual documents early in each phase of ESI processing.

When a defensible workflow is combined with the eDI toolset, then user can be presented with information essential to making better and more informed decisions about out to target and process the ESI collection.


There are a number of ways and tools that can be used to review the corpus. Paper, TIFF, database, and native documents are all examples of forms in which a review can take place. Over a given case, the process you use will likely incorporate all of these forms. Information needs to be portable, and in most cases that will require good planning and consensus with all involved.

The goal of this step is to reduce the corpus down to the set of documents you are going to produce and use in the case. Without proper planning, this step can be lengthy and costly. There are a number of strategies that can be used to reduce both.


With the corpus down to relevant documents, it is now time to produce them to the opposing counsel. Typically both sides have agreed upon their exchange methodologies during the discovery planning process. These include paper, TIFF or PDF images with a database of metadata. In increasingly more cases, parties are exchanging data in native form or in native with metadata extracted.


Paper Discovery Reference Model (PDRM)

The link here leads to an amusing article that maintains that the Electronic Discovery Reference Model is actually nothing new…


  • An Introduction to E-Discovery (Part 1)
  • Information Management: The Foundation of the Electronic Discovery Reference Model
  • An Introduction to E-Discovery (Part 2)
  • Information Governance and eDiscovery
  • “A Little E-Discovery Checklist”
  • eDiscovery Daily Blog: eDiscovery Best Practices: EDRM Data Set for Great Test Data
  • Secrets of Search – Part One
  • The EDRM is a four-letter …
  • Skype in eDiscovery
  • Beware Of Dupes

My “Interview”

I was honoured the other day when Bryant Duhon, Editor and Community Manager at AIIM International, asked if he could “interview” me. Below is the result:


I want to say a big Thank You to Bryant. I’m really happy with the write-up.

You can read the original here, and the links to my sites can be seen on my About Me page.


  • Exciting Times ahead with AIIM
  • AIIM with Pie

Comparison: ACM vs. BPM


What is the difference between Adaptive Case Management (ACM), and Business Process Management (BPM)?

Abstract: ACM and BPM

  • both used to help workers within organization to coordinate better, to achive goals more efficient, and to better meet the needs of their customers.
  • both involve data, process, roles, communications, integration and analytics.
  • however, they take very different approaches to doing this which are effective in different business situations.

Business process management approaches the problem of improving the work of an organization from a strongly process centric point of view.

The first thing you think about is the process. In a certain way, it is the process which defines whether two instances are similar or not.

Data flow into and out from the process. The process represent the goal of a particular sequence of actions, but that goal is not itself an information resource.

The process instance contains process relevant data, as well as application data, but it is generally assumes that that data is a copy of data that has its source elsewhere. This is the main point about “integration” of the process into other information resources.

BPM might be visualizeD AS in this diagram:

Adaptive Case Management (also known as Advanced Case Management) also tries to improve the performance of an organization, but instead of considering the process primary, it is the case information that is primary. This information is an information resource, which will be accessed over the length of use, and in many situations will become the official record (system of record) for that work.

There can be processes, but the processes are brought to the case, and run in the context of the case, rather than the other way around.

An ACM system might be envisioned as this:

Both approaches deal with

  • process relevant data,
  • allow for processes.
  • produce history information that can be analyzed to determine the efficiency of the group involved.
  • available to multiple people
  • people are notified of tasks
  • cature the results of tasks

At a technical level these are similar or even identical. But at a methodological level, how you approach a given problem, they are opposite ends of a spectrum.

In BPM, the process is primary, and so normally the process is predetermined and static, while the data flow through it. With ACM, it is the data that is primary, which tends to remain persistent for a long time, possibly forever, but it is processes which are brought to it. In many cases with ACM the processes are not even fully predefined, but can be defined on the fly.

The net result is that BMS and ACM are useful for different kinds of business situations.

  •  Highly predictable and highly repeatable business situations are best supported with BPM.
    • For example signing up for cell phone service: it happens thousands of times a day, and the process is essentially fixed.
  • Unpredictable and unrepeatable business situations are best handled with ACM.
    • For example investigation of a crime will require following up on various clues, down various paths, which are not predictable before hand. The are various tests and procedures to use, but they will be called only when needed.
The above text borrowed heavily from The WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT COALITION site – Public Notes
  • Apparently BPM Died Again
  • Adaptive Case Management Could Be The Foundation For Networked Business
  • Is Case Management and BPM the same? ” Thoughts on Collaborative Planning
  • Adaptive Case Management ” Welcome to the Real (IT) World!